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نسيت كلمة السر
 

قسم ( ملامح النقود الإسلامية والأسواق العربية عبر العصور مقارنة بعملات وأسوقة الحضارات الأخرى ) في هذا القسم سيتم التركيز على العملات الإسلامية وأسواق العرب وتجارتهم آنذاك مع بيان سبب انتشارها وتوسعها .

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  #1  
قديم 06-23-2011, 07:17 AM
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Wink  ❝ Glossary of numismatics ❝¸.






Glossary of numismatics


Numismatics ( ancient Greek : νομισματική ) is the scientific study of money and its history in all its varied forms. While numismatists are often characterized as studying coins, the discipline also includes the study of banknotes, stock certificates, medals, medallions, and tokens also referred to as Exonumia

Sub-fields or related fields of numismatics are



is the study of coin-like objects such as token coins and medals, and other items used in place of legal currency or for commemoration

Notaphily

is the study of paper money or banknotes


Scripophily

is the study and collection of stocks and bonds




A


The filing down of a blank to the correct weight before striking, shown by file marks. File marks are often still visible on the surface of a coin even after being struck

Alliance coinage

Coins minted by two or more state governments in conjunction. The Euro coins would be an example of this


Homogeneous mixture of two or more elements, where the resulting compound has metallic properties. Common coin alloys include cupro-nickel (copper and nickel) and bronze copper and tin

Altered Date

False date put on a coin to defraud collectors, usually to make it appear more valuable. Such alterations are often easily spotted with the aid of a magnifying glass

Anepigraphic coin

Coin without an inscription. Many ancient coins used only a simple picture of an animal to show value or weight



Process of heating and cooling metal in order to relieve stresses. This is often done with coin blanks to make the metal less brittle before striking


Test to ascertain the weight and purity of a coin

Attribution

Identifier of a coin such as date, mint, denomination, or variety


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آخر تعديل بواسطة محاسن الظاهر ، 06-23-2011 الساعة 09:51 PM
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  #2  
قديم 06-23-2011, 09:52 PM
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B

Bag Mark

Surface mark, or nick, on a coin usually from contact with other coins in a mint bag. More often seen on large gold or silver coins. Also called contact marks



Banker's Mark

A small countermark applied to a coin by a bank or a trader indicating that they consider the coin to be genuine and of legal weight. Most often found on ancient and medieval coins, but also on silver coins which circulated in China and Japan, where they are referred to as chop-marks


Non-precious metal or alloy containing no gold or silver. Common base metals used in coinage include nickel and copper

Beading

Raised dot border along the rim of a coin


Low-grade alloy of gold or silver with a high percentage of another metal, usually copper. Billon is often the result of a sudden debasing of circulating silver coinage due to hyperinflation

Bi-metallic

A coin with one type of metal in the center with an outer ring of a different metal. An example is the Canadian "toonie" two-dollar coin


Prepared disk of metal on which the coin design will be stamped. Also called a 'planchet' or 'flan'. In practice, 'Blank' is also referred to the un-struck or flat side of a uniface coin or medal


Copper based alloy with zinc

Brockage

Originally metal wasted in coin production, now coins struck when the previous coin remained stuck to a die, creating an incuse impression in the next struck coin primarily found in ancient coins


Copper based alloy with tin


Precious metals (platinum, gold and silver) in the form of bars, ingots or plate, or where quantity is considered as a valuation. Also refers to coins whose market value is determined by metallic content rather than scarcity

Bullion Value

Current market value of the raw precious metal content of a coin. For example, the bullion value for Canadian silver coins, 1920 to 1966, is 12 times the face value when silver is $20.00 per troy ounce


A coin intended for everyday use in commerce
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  #3  
قديم 06-23-2011, 10:01 PM
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C

Cameo
Strong distinction in the surface appearance of foreground devices relative to the field. Proof coins often exhibit this feature.
Carat
Unit measurement of the weight of precious stones. Usually marked 'c' or 'car'. 1 carat = 200 milligrams. Not to be confused with 'Karat' used with gold.
Cast Coins
Coins produced by pouring metal into a mold. Used for the first Ancient Roman bronze "As" coins and Chinese "cash" coins, but rarely used today. Modern counterfeit coins are often cast.
Centum
One one-hundredth of the basic monetary unit from Latin. The English cent, Romance languages centavos, centimos, centesimos or centimes are one hundredth of a base unit like dollar, euro, peso etc.
Certified Coin
Coin that has been graded and authenticated by one of numerous independent grading services. See also Encapsulated coin.
Church Tokens
Also known as Communion Tokens, they were generally issued initially by Scottish parishes (die stamped one-side only to show the parish) and later in USA and Canada; they were square or oblong, and were made of lead, iron or brass and measured 1/4" to 1".1
Circulated
Term used to indicate a coin that has wear.
Clad Coinage
Issues of coins that contain a center core and outer layer of differing metals or alloys bonded together. The current U.S. Quarter, dime, and half dollar are made of cupronickel clad copper.
Coin alignment
A method of striking in which the obverse and reverse dies are aligned 180 degrees from each other. All American coins are struck this way.
Collar
Outer ring of the die chamber that holds the blank in place while the obverse and reverse are being stamped.
Contact Marks
Minor abrasions on uncirculated coinage from contact with other coins. Also called "bag marks".
Countermark or Counterstamp
Partial or complete over-stamping of a coin or token in order to change its value or issuing authority, or to display an advertisement, political slogan or symbol, etc. Stamping may consist of a number (value), symbol (authority), letters (advertisement or slogan), or any combination of the above.
Crown
Large coin often struck in precious metal. Modern crowns are usually not highly-circulated due to being too large and/or too heavy. The United States's last crown-sized coin for circulation was the Eisenhower Dollar, last struck in 1978.
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  #4  
قديم 06-24-2011, 08:26 AM
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D
Debase
To lower the silver/gold value of the coin by altering its purity, but with the same face value as the pure coin. This often happens during periods of high inflation.
Denticles
Small toothlike projecting points on the inside edge of coins.
Designer
Artist or creator of a coin's design.
Device
Pattern or emblem used in the design of a coin.
Die
Metal piece engraved with the design used for stamping the coin.
Die Clash
Caused when a coin planchet fails to be placed between two dies during the minting process, causing the dies to smash together. The design of one or both may impress into the opposite die, causing a "shadow" of the design to appear on subsequent coins minted with the damaged dies. The impact of the two dies may also result in die cracks or defects.
Die Crack
Fine raised line on a coin that was caused by a crack in the die.
Die Defect
Imperfection of various sorts caused by a damaged die. May refer to a crack or clash or a chip out of the die, etc. A defect from a chipped die is called a cud.
Die State
A variation in appearance to a coin struck by a single die, resulting from wear or alteration of the die. For example, the presence or absence of die cracks may signal a specific die state.
Die Variety
Minor variation in a die, including repunched mintmarks, doubling, or deliberate minor changes to the die design.
Dime
United States $0.10 coin. Derived from the old English "Tithe", meaning "1 of 10" (The Dime is one tenth of a dollar.) While the term is American in origin, Canadians often use the term as well.
Dipped, Dipping
Chemical cleaning of a coin with a diluted acid.
Double Eagle (U.S.A)
United States gold $20 coin. Struck from 1850 to 1933.

Example of extreme doubling on the date of a coin


Double strike
A coin where a die is struck, bounced, then struck again, offset from first strike (used for ancient coins where hubs were not used).
Doubled Die
Die that received two misaligned impressions from a hub; more commonly, a coin struck by such a die.
Doubloon
Popular name of a Spanish gold coin originally valued at 4 dollars.
Dump Australia
Centre of the holey dollar with a value of fifteen pence.
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  #5  
قديم 06-24-2011, 08:31 AM
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E
Eagle (U.S.A)
  1. United States $10.00 gold coin
  2. Series of US Bullion coins minted from 1986 through the present
Edge
Rim of a coin often containing a series of reeds, lettering or other decoration.
Ecu
Large French silver coin made during the end of the monarchy. Also proposed European currency unit.
Effigy
The image or likeness of a person, usually on the obverse of a coin or medal.
Electrotype
Reproduction made by electrodeposition frequently used in museum displays.
Electrum
Artificial or naturally occurring mixture of gold and silver used in some of the world's first coinage.
Elongated coin
An oval medalet produced by a roller die using a coin, token or medal as a planchet, usually a cent.
Encapsulated Coin
A coin that has been authenticated, graded and preserved in plastic by an independent service.
Engraver
Person who cuts the image of a design onto a die.
Error
Usually a mis-made coin not intended for circulation, but can also refer to an engraving or die-cutting error not discovered until the coins are released to circulation. The mis-made coin errors are usually unique, but the engraving errors appear on all of the coins produced until the error is corrected. This may result in two or more varieties of the coin in the same year.
Essai, Essay
A trial strike, also in currency a strike intended to test the design.
Exergue
A segment of the coin design separated by a line (usually indicating the ground in the design) in which a legend is placed/inscribed.
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  #6  
قديم 06-25-2011, 03:18 PM
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F
Face Value
Value that is written on a coin. For example, an American 1 cent coin has a face value of 1 cent. A collectable coin or bullion coin is usually worth many times its face value.
Fantasy
Generally a representation of a rare or never issued coin.
Field
Background area of a coin not used for a design or inscription.
Filler
Coin that is very worn and/or damaged, but may still be included in a collection if it is a Key Coin.
Fineness
Purity of precious metal content expressed in terms of one thousand parts. 90% is expressed as .900 fine. The purest gold bullion coin is .99999 fine.
Flan
Blank metal piece before striking, also called a planchet or blank.
Fleur de coin FDC
Coin of exceptionally high quality, where quality is determined not just by wear of the coin in circulation but also by the wear and artistic quality of the dies from which it was minted. These factors are crucial for ancient coinage where variability was higher than in modern mints. See also Grade.
Flip Strike
An error caused by the coin flipping over after being struck, and then struck a second time. Each face of the coin will have a "ghost" of the opposite face.
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  #7  
قديم 06-25-2011, 03:19 PM
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G
Gem
Coin of exceptionally high condition, such as Gem Uncirculated or Gem Proof.
Grade
The condition of a coin or amount of wear that a coin has received. Common grade terms used in North America, from worst to best, are Poor (Po), Fair (Fr), About Good (AG), Good (G), Very Good (VG), Fine (F), Very Fine (VF), Extra/Extremely Fine (EF or XF), Almost Uncirculated (AU), Uncirculated (UNC), and Brilliant Uncirculated (BU). Grading criteria may also include color, strength of strike, and "eye appeal".
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  #8  
قديم 06-25-2011, 03:22 PM
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H
High Relief
A coin with the raised design high above the field. Coins struck in high relief often have problems with details not coming up sharp enough and dies having a shorter than usual lifespan. If the design is higher than the rim, the coin may not be stackable, and the highest points of the design will wear away very quickly.
Holey dollar Australia
Spanish 8 Real coin with a hole in centre, stamped with New South Wales 1813 on obverse and five shilling on reverse.
Hubdisambiguation needed
Positive-image punch that impresses the coin's design onto a die.
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  #9  
قديم 06-25-2011, 03:25 PM
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I
Incuse
Part of the coin's design that has been impressed below the surface (intaglio).
Ingot
Mass of pure metal from a mould. It may be stamped with its weight and purity.
Inscription
Lettering and wording on a coin.
Intrinsic Value
Current market value of a coin based on its metallic content. For a coin struck on precious metals, this is the same as its bullion value.
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  #10  
قديم 06-25-2011, 03:26 PM
محاسن الظاهر محاسن الظاهر غير متصل
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تاريخ التسجيل: Feb 2010
الدولة: الأردن
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افتراضي

K
Karat
Unit measurement of the purity of gold. Usually marked 'K', or 'k'. 24K = pure gold, 18K = .750 fine. Not to be confused with 'Carat' used with precious stones. Note that both originally referred to the seed of the carob tree ('Ceratonia siliqua' or 'Siliqua Graeca'). A Roman coin called the solidus weighed 24 'carats' or 'siliquae', 1/6 of a scruple; this became the standard in purity in western Europe.
Key Coin
A rarer or higher valued coin within a series. As an example, 1923 and 1925 are key coins in the Canadian small cent series
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